Common Miscarriage Signs, Treatments, and Causes

Pregnancy Complications

Miscarriage is one of the most emotionally traumatic events that a woman can experience. Although experiencing an unexpected pregnancy loss can be a physically trying and emotionally devastating experience.

Miscarriage affects many women and families worldwide, and yet often, people don’t feel comfortable talking about or even seeking help due to the stigma associated with this traumatic event. Unfortunately, many women are unaware of common miscarriage signs or what treatments are available to them if they suffer from a miscarriage. This blog post will provide an in-depth look at key information related to miscarriages, including signs, treatments, and potential causes, so that you can gain clarity during this difficult time.

What is miscarriage?

Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the pregnancy loss before the 20th week of gestation. Most miscarriages occur in the first trimester (before 13 weeks) and are often caused by chromosomal issues that make it impossible for an embryo to develop normally. Miscarriages happen in about 15-20% of all pregnancies, and the risk increases with a woman’s age.

There are many different types of miscarriage, and the most common are:

1. Missed Miscarriage: In this type, the fetus has stopped developing but still remains in the uterus. Symptoms include no fetal heart rate on ultrasound and no signs of pregnancy on a physical exam.

2. Complete miscarriage: Complete miscarriages happen when all of the pregnancy tissue is expelled from the body. Symptoms include heavy bleeding and cramping that does not subside.

3. Incomplete miscarriage: In this type, some of the pregnancy tissue remains in the uterus and must be removed surgically. Symptoms include heavy bleeding and cramping that does not subside.

4. Recurrent Miscarriage: This is when a woman has three or more consecutive miscarriages. Causes are often unknown but can include genetic problems, hormonal imbalance, infections, and other medical conditions.

5. Threatened Miscarriage: Threatened miscarriages occur when a woman has vaginal bleeding and cramping, but the fetal tissue remains in the uterus. The pregnancy has not yet been miscarried, but it may still happen.

6. Inevitable miscarriage: This situation occurs when a woman has already started to miscarry, and the fetal tissue has begun to be expelled. If the cervix is open and bleeding is present, it is likely that a miscarriage will occur.

However, miscarriage, also called early pregnancy loss, can be an emotionally painful experience. It is important to note that some types of miscarriages cannot be prevented, and many women still go on to have a healthy pregnancy after experiencing one.

What are the signs of miscarriage?

Although pregnancies end in various ways, certain signs may signal an impending miscarriage. As we have said above, the risk of miscarriage is highest during the first trimester of pregnancy. During your early pregnancy time, you should watch out for any of the following signs:

Abdominal pain or cramps

Miscarriages are often accompanied by abdominal pain or cramps. These may be similar to those experienced during menstruation or more severe. Lower back pain can also accompany abdominal cramping. If you experience any of these pains, contact your doctor for further advice and care.

Vaginal bleeding or spotting

Bleeding could range from light pink to bright red and heavy. It might be accompanied by cramps and pain in your lower back or stomach (similar to menstrual cramps). The miscarriage risk increases if the bleeding is heavier or lasts longer than normal. Also, if you have previous miscarriages and have experienced vaginal bleeding during this pregnancy, you should consult your doctor immediately, as it could be a sign of a possible miscarriage.

Discharge of tissue or fluid from the vagina

This is one of the more common signs of an impending miscarriage. If you notice any tissue-like material (which may be fleshy or contain small clots) or a fluid that is not from your normal menstrual discharge, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.

Decreased Pregnancy Symptoms

If you experience a decrease in symptoms such as breast tenderness, nausea or morning sickness, fatigue, and decreased fetal activity, this could indicate a possible miscarriage. However, you can also develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), where you may experience early miscarriages due to hormonal imbalances, so it is important to talk to your doctor if you notice any changes.

Mild to severe back pain

Generally, inevitable or incomplete miscarriage causes mild to severe lower back pain. This is because the tissues and blood vessels that normally support the pregnancy are stretched during the process of miscarriage, resulting in discomfort or pain. Severe back pain could indicate a complication, such as an ectopic pregnancy or retained products of conception, and should be immediately evaluated by a doctor.

White-pink mucus

White or pink mucus, which may accompany vaginal bleeding, can also signify an impending miscarriage. White or pink mucus can appear during the first trimester and is usually accompanied by other signs of miscarriage. However, chromosomal abnormalities in the infant could lead to unusually colored mucus. Therefore, it is critical to seek medical advice for a comprehensive assessment.

Contact your doctor for further advice and care if you experience any of these signs or symptoms. In some cases, there is no treatment that can prevent a miscarriage from occurring; however, early medical intervention may help to reduce the risk of complications in certain situations.

What causes miscarriages to happen?

Despite certain factors that may add to the odds of miscarriage, in most cases, it is not due to any fault or mistake on your part. If you have been having trouble staying pregnant, your doctor can look into possible causes of a miscarriage. Some common causes of miscarriage are:

Genetic or chromosome issues

The baby’s genetic or chromosomal abnormality can contribute to some miscarriages. If one or both parents have a family history of these issues, they may pass it on to their child and cause miscarriage. Generally, for a developing fetus to survive, the fertilized egg must have the correct number of chromosomes.

Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances, either in the mother or the fetus, can lead to a miscarriage. These include low progesterone levels, which are necessary for a successful pregnancy. Low thyroid hormones can also cause miscarriage, affecting how well your body processes nutrients and tissues needed for the baby’s proper development.

Uterine Abnormalities

Sometimes, a woman may have an abnormal uterus that can cause a miscarriage. These abnormalities include uterine septum, polyps, or fibroids, which can reduce the amount of space available for the baby’s development and lead to miscarriage.

Immunological Factors

The presence of certain cells in the mother’s body can indicate an incompatibility between her and the fetus. In some cases, the mother may have antibodies that attack the baby’s cells and cause miscarriage. Additionally, if a woman has had repeated miscarriages, it could also be caused by an autoimmune issue where her body is attacking the fetus instead of protecting it.


Infections such as listeriosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and toxoplasmosis can lead to miscarriage. If a pregnant woman contracts one of these infections early on in her pregnancy, she may be at a higher risk of miscarriage.

Other Factors

Other factors, such as smoking, alcohol use, and drug abuse, can also increase the risk of miscarriage. Additionally, environmental toxins such as radiation or lead can cause damage to the fetus and result in miscarriage. Lastly, physical trauma or stress may contribute to a woman’s chances of miscarrying.

What are the treatments available for miscarriage?

Miscarriage treatments vary depending on the cause of the miscarriage, how far along you are in the pregnancy, and your individual health. Common treatments include:

Nonsurgical treatment

If your doctor has determined that the pregnancy is not viable, they may recommend an “expectant management” procedure. This means waiting for the body to naturally expel the tissue and products of conception on its own.


Sometimes medication such as misoprostol may be prescribed to help the body expel the products of conception. Furthermore, if your blood tests report indicates that you have an infection in your uterus, antibiotics may be prescribed.

Surgical treatments

In some cases, such as when a miscarriage is incomplete or there are signs of infection, your doctor may recommend a dilation and curettage (D&C) procedure to remove any remaining tissue from the uterus. This procedure removes the tissue and products of conception to prevent infection or excessive bleeding.


Losing a pregnancy can be a difficult and emotional experience for many women. That’s why it’s important to get support during this time. Your doctor may recommend that you talk to a professional counselor or join a support group in order to help you cope with your loss.

Other treatments, such as hormone therapy, may be recommended for recurrent miscarriages or other issues. Your doctor can help you determine the best treatment for your situation. It’s important to remember that although miscarriage is common, it doesn’t mean it will happen again. With the right care and support, you can move forward in your journey.

What are the risk factors of miscarriage?

Pregnancy is a complex and delicate process, and the risks for miscarriage can vary greatly. Common risk factors for miscarriage include:

Maternal Age

The advancing age of the mother increases the risk of miscarriage. Women over 35 are more likely to experience a miscarriage than younger women.

Previous miscarriage

If a woman has had one or more previous miscarriages, the likelihood of miscarriage increases with each additional pregnancy.

Health Conditions

Certain health conditions, such as diabetes and thyroid problems, can increase the risk of miscarriage. Additionally, certain infections, such as rubella (German measles), can increase the chances of miscarriage if contracted during pregnancy.

Structural abnormalities

Uterine and cervical abnormalities may increase the risk of miscarriage, including conditions such as uterine fibroids or an abnormally shaped uterus.

Lifestyle Factors

Smoking, drinking alcohol, and using recreational drugs can increase the chances of pregnancy loss. Additionally, extreme stress or exhaustion can also be linked to miscarriage.

Environmental factors

Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and lead, can increase the risk of miscarriage.

Furthermore, certain medical procedures, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS), can increase the risk of miscarriage. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of these tests with your doctor before proceeding.

Can I get pregnant again after having a miscarriage?

Yes, you can get pregnant again after a miscarriage. It is important to note that the amount of time it takes to conceive again varies from person to person. After a miscarriage, your body needs time heal and recover before attempting another pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends waiting at least two weeks after a miscarriage before trying to get pregnant again to allow the uterus and cervix to return to their pre-pregnant states. After this period of rest and recovery, you may be physically ready for conception as long as you are emotionally prepared as well.


What happens to your body after a miscarriage?

Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before it reaches viability, usually defined as before 20 weeks gestation. Immediately following a miscarriage, it is not uncommon to feel overwhelmed and exhausted due to the amount of blood loss during the event. Blood tests will often be performed to determine if further treatment is necessary in order for your body to recuperate properly.

At this stage in recovery, it’s crucial that you take steps towards healing emotionally as well physically. After about two weeks, most women return back to their regular menstrual cycle, which can offer some comfort amidst grief; however, further miscarriages may occur for reasons unknown even after conception has been successful once again – though not always true depending on individual cases.

How long does a miscarriage last?

The length of a miscarriage varies depending on the individual and can range from a few hours to several weeks. Generally speaking, most miscarriages occur in the early stage of pregnancy and last for about one or two weeks. During this period, the body will expel any tissue that has been growing inside the uterus. This includes any fetal tissue and placenta that were developing at this stage of gestation.

After a miscarriage, it is important to take extra care of yourself during the healing process, both physically and emotionally. Additionally, seeking medical advice regarding controlling post-miscarriage pain or talking to someone professionally is necessary.

Can I have a miscarriage without bleeding?

Yes, it is possible to experience a miscarriage without any bleeding. This type of miscarriage is referred to as a missed or silent miscarriage. A missed miscarriage occurs when the embryo stops developing and grows abnormally slowly but remains in the uterus instead of being passed naturally. In some cases, the placenta might continue to grow even though there is no longer an embryo inside of it. Suppose anyone suspects that they have had a silent or missed miscarriage. In that case, it’s important for them to consult their doctor for further investigation and guidance on how best to proceed with treatment or care options.

The Bottom Line

Miscarriage is a common and often unexpected event for many women. While it can be heartbreaking and difficult to cope with, you don’t have to go through it alone. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible. While there is no guaranteed way to prevent miscarrying, there are treatments available that may help. If you have experienced multiple miscarriages, your doctor may be able to offer additional support or testing. We hope this information has been helpful in understanding the risks and treatments associated with miscarriage.